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Developed from the TII torpedo. Wire guided by means of visual sight from a command bunker / observation site. Intended for coastal defence and use from beach-batteries (wagenbatterie), later evolved to also include special harbour installations (molenbatterie) and mobile launchers (schiffbatterie). Only 200 torpedoes were built (gerät 43d), originally for 35 "spinne sperrbatterie" to be established on the French channel- and Mediterranean coastline from July 1944. Some batteries were also established in Belgium, and after the allied invasion in July 1944 most of the French batteries were moved to the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark (85 TX torpedoes were located in 14 Danish batteries after the war).
T10 Spinne
A standard torpedo modified to use wire guidance. First issued in 1944 but the results were not satisfactory.

Experimental surface-running torpedo remotely controlled by radio (several solutions were investigated, including control from airplane and shore-based relay-stations). Hexagon-shaped hull with hydrofoil wings and rocket-propulsion.'

Two experimental torpedo models using the TIII engine, but replacing the conventional propellers with "schlagruder" (oscillating fins, similar to the tail of a whale). The hull was of an unconventional "manta" design, which had several benefits: Less drag in the water. Potential for much higher payload (a total weight of 4 tonnes using the TIII engine, compared to the 1.5 tonne total weight of the TIII). Much more stable travel compared to the traditional tube-formed torpedo hulls. One test model build.

Wake-homing torpedo with acoustic/pressure seeker. Only theoretic planning.

    Magnetic seeker. Only theoretic planning.

UBOAT > General Discussions > Topic Details

kenberg has UBOAT May 22, 2018 @ 6:31pm 
German Wire Guided Torpedoes
So with UBOAT set in a alternate reality were the Type XXI is available earlier in the war i was hopeing that some other things will be available earlier.

The G7es T10 Spinne was a wire guided torpedo that first appeared in 1944 and was tested extensively and combat tested for land based and sea based launchers,
Like the seehund midget submarine but did not become fully operational befor the end of the war.

The G7es Lerche was a dual purpose anti ship and anti submarine wire guided torpedo for use on UBOAT's like the Type XXI and apparently it was ready for combat testing at the end of the war.

The G7es Lerche was a improved model of the G7es T5 and T10 / T11 models and all G7es used the same torpedo casing.

Sea Skimmer said:
Around the time of Overlord the Germans actually had a plan to install over 200 coastal torpedo batteries in France, but I don't think a single one was actually completed.

According to this 1972 article that JFC Fuller found, some of those batteries were indeed completed, and used the Spinne/T10 controlled (electric) torpedo:

Moving on to a higher level of sophistication
we come to the controlled torpedo. Most
successful of these was the very aptly named
Spinne (= spider) which was fired from coastal
stations. A fine insulated wire was paid out
and guidance instructions were transmitted
down the wire to the weapon. By day the
torpedo could be instructed to surface briefly
and by night to flash a lamp in order that the
operator could track its path. Observation
posts were situated high on cliffs and up to
three weapons could be controlled by each
operator. Known also as T10, the weapon
had a range of 5,400 yards and a speed of 30
knots. These weapons were set up along the
French coast in 1944 but appear to have been
of dubious effectiveness. They did inspire the
British work on wire control of torpedoes,
however, which led to the present wire-guided
U.K. Mark 23.

More on the Spinne: http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=70&p=1606931

From the same AHF topic, some information on the 'Spinnebatterien', courtesy of AHF member Natter:

Picking up the "Spinne"-thread again. This is from a british document (very poor quality, so there might be a few errors due to problems of interpreting the text). I have omitted several references in the text, which seem to refer to specific intelligence-reports, as they are both hard to read and probably not of much interest (if anyone need them, just let me know).

(unreadable ) NAVAL SECTION



(unreadable reference)


1. Introduction
Since 7.6.44 references have appeared to a new type of coastal defence which bears the code-name "SPINNE" (Spider).

2. Description of the weapon
The defence have the form of a remote-controlled torpedo, launched from a beach or mole, to be used by the germans for the protection of ports against the approach of enemy vessels. The torpedo is electrically controlled from the shore by a cable, has a range of 6000 yards, and a speed of 30 knots. Several torpedoes can be launched simultaneously.

3. Administration
Torpedoinspectorate KIEL appears to be the chief authority concerned with "SPINNE", the torpedo trials department being responsible for arranging trials trough the local torpedo commands. Reference has also been made to "SPINNE" Torpedo Kommando ROTTERDAM.

Local torpedo commands at CHERBOURG, BREST, LORIENT, ST.NAZAIRE, LA PALLICE, BORDEUX and TOULON have all been concerned with the construction of "SPINNE" installation.

Request for supplies are made through Gruppe East O Qu, and materials are being supplied by Torpedo Arsenal West, PARIS and Torpedo Arsenal TOULON.

4. Location of "SPINNE" installations
"SPINNE" batteries are being constructed on the Atlantic and Mediterrenean coasts of FRANCE. The chief ports are affected. Already exisiting defences such as cable-barrages etc, are being replaced by "SPINNE" but will remain as additional defences.

i. Installations for "SPINNE" have already been constructed at LA PALICE, MARSEILLES and TOULON.

At LA PALLICE, mole apparatus trials were scheduled for after 29.6, but on 15.6 Torpedo Command LA PALLICE reported that the lowering device for the mole battery could not be completed before the end of june.

At MARSEILLES (landpoint) trolley trials were to take place on 25.6.

The final trials of "SPINNE" were to be held at TOULON after 23.6. Six torpedoes were to be used for the trials and afterwards made available for operations.

ii. Installations for "SPINNE" are also under construction at the following places:

Constructional work for "SPINNE" is probably being carried out in the BREST area. Torpedo Command BREST was asked by Gruppe West O Qu on 13.6 to state its ground cable requirements for the torpedo.

There is construction work for the new defence proceeding in the LORIENT area. Journeys to DOUARNENEE (? ...it's hard to read this word) and AUDIERNE from LORIENT were considered necessary in connection with "SPINNE" and Torpedo Command LORIENT was asked on 13.6. for its ground cable requirements for "SPINNE".

A site at FORT DE LEVE has been proposed but there has been no evidence of work having commenced.

d. POINTE DE GRAVE (opposite ROYAN, at the north of the GIRONDE):
This position would not be ready until the end of of July, owing to the construction of a "floating ram".

e. AGDE:
The construction of this position was reported delayed on 30.6 owing to the lack of fuel and oil for TODT*. A gap for "SPINNE" was left when a minefield was laid out off AGDE on 12.7. The minefield, which consists of three rows, was laid from 4317.2N, 0331.9E to 4316.3N, 0331.1E.

f. SETE:
Construction of the SETE position has also been delayed by the lack of fuel for TODT*. There is a control post, possibly belonging to "SPINNE" on the inner mole.

g. "SPINNE" installations in the area of S.D.C. LANGUEDOC, referred to as 17A, 15B, 12A, 14B and 13A were reported under construction on 13.7. At 17A the shelter was completed. The area of S.D.C. LANGUEDOC includes AGDE, SETE and MARSEILLES.

*Organisation TODT.

5. Personell
Personell who have been mentioned in connection with "SPINNE" are:
Capt von SCHEMERMARK of Gruppe West.
Sublt. (Torp.) KREFELD who was at one of the "SPINNE" installations in the LORIENT area.

Organisation TODT and Pioneer Group are carrying out constructional work for "SPINNE".

From an earlier post in the same thread, again by Natter:

Content of a document called "Intermediate report no. 2 on operation "SPINNE" giving the status on 4.7.1944" (dated 8.7.1944). Red text = my comments:

A: Torpedoes

1. 66 torpedoes have been delivered. Of these, 15 have reached the Ostend area, 9 the Atlantic coast, and 12 Toulon. 30 are on the way (24 to Toloun, 6 to Bordeaux).

2. The present rate of delivery by DWK is 2 torpedoes a day.

3. In the tests for internal pressure at 1,5atm (same as for G7a and standard G7e) and also after the transport to the place for operations, the glass discs for the after-part door were cracked; this was remedied by reducing the pressure to 0,75atm and by exchanging the glass discs for better ones (prepared according to the new cooling process) and by placing a rubber packing underneath.

4. TVA experiences in the SPINNE tests:
With a water deptht of 0,5m above the torpedo, the starts are still satisfactory. When the torpedo breaks surface, after the "up" command, it makes sudden eneven, unaccountable changes of course (see Fl b).

B. Steering and firing-off

1. The TVA tests showed that the 24 Volt accumulator, as given by SAM, can only satisfy the requirements when no loss of voltage occurs. With a drop in voltage, the performance of the accumulators is no longer sufficient to transmit satisfactory commands. Consequently the installations with this accumulator is not sufficient in operations. Owing to transport conditions, the measures to be taken are extremely difficult. Measures have been introduced.

3. Positions with regard to construction and dates of termination

(a) Admiral, Channel Coast

(aa) The mole firing-posts at Zeebrügge, Ostend, Dunkirk, Calais and Boulogne were nearly ready when the invasion began.
The following will probably be ready for use:
Zeebrügge on 5.7.44
Ostend on 1.7.44
Dunkirk on 1.7.44
Calais on 30.7.44
Boulogne on 15.7.44

(bb) The continuation of the construction and the completion of the firing-points in Fecamp, Le Havre, Port-en-Bessin and Cherbourg had to be discontinued when the invasion began. It is intended that the 12 SPIONNE-torpedoes which thus become available shall be placed at the disposal of the Admiral South Coast of France for a further 4 Spinne carriage - firing-points.

(b) Admiral, Atlantic Coast

According to the latest reports of the Naval Construction Offices concerned, the state of development is as follows:

Douarnenez: The mounting of the starting device has begun.
Audierne, Beg-Meil, Larmor Plage: Anchorings with drag-drops are laid out. Splinter-proof stands are being constructed.
Turballe: Nearly completed.
St. Nazaire: Mounting of the starting device has begun.
La Pallice: The installation will be ready on 1.7.44. The cabling is still lacking.
Royen Mole: The installation itself which was completed, the winch, crane etc., were destroyed by enemy action. Reconstruction is in course.

(c) Admiral, South Coast of France

Work in the principal sites (Marseilles, Bandol, Hyeres), which had made good progress previously, came to considerable stand-still after 6.6.1944 - with the exeption of Marseilles - since the Todt organisation doing the fitting-up of the position here, had been removed to the rear by order of the Supreme Command.

When the TEK investigation has been carried out, Marseilles will be quite ready for use, and Bandol and Hyeres will be ready in about 10-14 days.

(d) Material Equipment

Admiral, Channel Coast

The mole-firing points at Zeebrügge, Ostend, Dunkirk, Calais and Bolougne are fully equipped with discharge stands, underground cables and other apparatus. There are 15 spinne torpedos in the area.

(e) Admiral, Atlantic Coast

Torpedo Command in Lorient is equppied with 12 torpedo-carriages and 6 spinne-torpedoes with fittings for the installation at Douarnenez (M), Audierne, Benodet, Beg-Meil and Larmor-Plage (W).

Torpedo Command in St. Nazaire has 3 torpedo-carriages for Turballe and St. Nazaire; Torpedo Command in La Pallice has 3 spinne-torpedoes and fittings.

For further equipment, see D3, last paragraph.

(f) Admiral, South Coast of France

Torpedo Command in Toulon, as the Command concerned with the whole of the Southern Area, has so far received:
1. 48 departure carriages with all the accessories.
2. 12 spinne-torpedoes.

F. Tests

(a) As TZ 2 (magnetic Pistol) which had been planned, is not serviceable for the time being because of too high sensitity to disturbance at the "up" command, tests are being carried out with the MZ-part switched off when this command is given. Equipment for operations is therefore Pi 1, if possible already inserted in the warhead.

(b) TVA reported that, in individual torpedoes, every command was not always carried out and that very often, after the "up" command, the torpedoes make incalculable, jumpy changes of course. The pronouncements by SAM are in opposition to this. Since the deployment of the apparatus was called in question because of this want of clearness, the next 10 apparatus had to be placed at SAM's disposal for firing tests at TVA. This caused an interruption of the production for the front of about 14 days.

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IBIS detected the echoes received from a ship's
wake but having entered the wake the weapon
went into a pre-set pattern running procedure.
This svstem was also drooped in favour
of GEIER. MARCHEN (= Fairy tale ! !) was
a magnetic homing weapon which achieved
acquistion ranges onto large non-degaussed
ships of several hundred yards but it was
cancelled on account of the variability of ship
magnetic fields with position on the Earth's
surface. Finally we note the wake weaver
devised by Professor Ackermann at the Danzig
Technical College. The presence of the wake
was detected by its turbulence and this in
turn was detected by two pressure tap points
near the nose and tail. The turbulence effects
were too small to enable a reliable indication
of the wake to be given. (It is interesting to
note that a similar system was devised in
Britain over forty years earlier !)
The Germans developed or studied over
fifty types of torpedo including the famous
peroxide types and the less well known wireless controlled weapons. They also tested a
fiat torpedo propelled by a flapping fin and
the British revived the flywheel weapon. All
of these and more will be introduced in the
next of these articles
Wake homing

View history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wake behind a vessel of the German navy

Soviet 53-65K torpedo developed during the Cold War
Wake homing is a torpedo guidance technique based on the wake trajectory left behind a moving target.[1]

The torpedo is fired to cross behind the stern of the target ship, through the wake. As it does so, it uses sonar to look for changes in the water caused by the passage of the ship, such as small air bubbles. When these are detected, the torpedo turns toward the ship. It then follows a zig-zag course, turning when it detects the outer edge of the wake, to keep itself in the wake while moving forward. This will eventually bring it to the stern of the ship, where its warhead can do the most damage to propulsion and steering.

Advantages and disadvantages
The system is difficult to jam, but it can be distracted by other ships crossing the wake. In 2013, the US Navy tested prototypes of a system known as the Countermeasure Anti-Torpedo (CAT),[2] which had been designed to intercept and destroy the incoming torpedo. Deployment of the system did not proceed as planned due to performance issues.[3]

The main disadvantage of wake homing is that the course taken to the target is not direct and may be far from optimal, as it mimics the target's own trajectory from the point of wake's interception onward. As the torpedo's remaining distance always increases hand-in-hand with the distance made by the vessel itself, this necessitates the torpedoes to have a significantly higher speed and longer range than normal.

Also, being an active method, sonar wake homing gives up the torpedo position. This is why it is usually supplemented by passive methods, such as thermal and refractometric wake detection. Thermal wake detection centers on locating changes in water temperature in the ship's wake. Refractometric detection senses minute changes in the water's refraction index due to cavitation bubbles and such.
Thomas J. Pelick

Mk 27 Mod 4 and Mk 34:1
Homing Iorpedoes in WWII
The U.S. Navy entered World War II with few torpedoes and no acoustic homing torpedoes. When the war ended in 1945, the Navy torpedo inventory contained several torpedoes including passive acoustic homing torpedoes, Mk 24, Mk 27, and Mk 28. The capture of the German G7 e torpedo demonstrated the feasibility of electric propulsion for fleet torpedoes. The quieter electric propelled torpedoes became the platform for the acoustic homing systems. The original thermal propulsion systems using oxidizers (air, enriched air, oxygen, or hydrogen peroxide) and a fuel (alcohol or kerosene) had too much internal noise for acoustic systems to be effective in these torpedoes. The aircraft launched Mk 24 torpedo, called FIDO, was the first U.S. acoustic homing torpedo (see SUBMARINE REVIEW, January 1996). It bad an electric propulsion and steering system. The passive homing system from FIDO was modified and put into the Mk 27 torpedo which was designed to be launched from submarines.

The Mk 27 Mod 0 torpedo was affectionately known as cutie. It began service as an anti-escort torpedo in late 1944 and about 100 torpedoes were fired during WWII with an efficiency of about 33 percent. A single homing torpedo could take the place of a salvo of non-homing torpedoes, thereby increasing the effectiveness of a submarine load of torpedoes. The Mk 27 was a quiet running torpedo with an electric propulsion system. It was designed as a swim out torpedo, thereby reducing the alertment noise from the alternative compressed air torpedo ejection system. It was a smaller torpedo than most submarine launched torpedoes. It had a diameter of 19 inches, 90 inch length, a weight of 720 pounds and a warhead of 95# HBX-1. It had a speed of 12 knots and a range of about 5 kiloyards. About 1000 torpedoes were eventually built by Western Electric. Because of the small warhead, this torpedo like its sister, the Mk 24, provided for mission kill versus platform kill.

The Mk 28 torpedo entered wwn at the close of the war. This was a submarine launched passive homing torpedo with a larger warhead (585#HB.) than the Mk 27. It was also larger than the Mk 27 torpedo with a diameter of 21 inches, length of 246 inches, and a speed of about 20 knots. It had a range capability of about 4 kiloyards. Although about 1700 torpedoes were built by Westinghouse, very few saw service during WWII because of its late entry into the war. This torpedo was later replaced by the Mk 37 torpedo.

The success of these passive homing torpedoes depended on fire control accuracy. Some submariners thought that they could just point in the general direction and shoot and the torpedo would find its way to the target. These torpedoes had endurance and range but the acoustic homing range was shorter depending on the target’s noise and the environment. Proper placement of these homing torpedoes relative to the target was critical to success.

There were many homing torpedoes being developed with the Mk 24 FIDO acoustic system, but most of them did not get into significant production. Some of these torpedoes were designated as the Mk 21. Mk 29, Mk 30, Mk 31, and Mk 33. Active homing was attempted in the Mk 22 but only in the horizontal plane during terminal homing. The Navy decided to stop wort on these projects and incorporate the best features into other torpedoes. Work continued on modifications to the existing torpedoes.

Non-Homing Torpedoes in WWII
The non-homing torpedoes in the Navy’s inventory at the end of WWII were the aircraft launched Mk 13, the surface ship launched Mk 15, and the submarine launched Mk 14, Mk 16, Mk 18, and Mk 23 torpedoes. The Mk 28, patterned after the German G7e torpedo, bad an electric propulsion system with a speed of 29 knots and a range of 4 kiloyards. Although it was electric, the control system used compressed air which made it somewhat noisy for acoustic homing systems. Several non-homing torpedoes were still in development, such as the Mk 16, Mk 17, Mk 19, Mk 20, Mk 23, Mk 25, Mt 26 and the Mk 29. Of these non-homing torpedoes, only the Mt 16 and Mk 23 entered production. The Mk 16 produced at Newport, Rhode Island and Forest Park, Illinois, had a length of 246 inches, weight of 2 tons, 746#HBX warhead, a speed of 46 knots, and a range of 11 kiloyards. This torpedo bad a late entry into WWII. Most of these torpedoes were produced after WWII. The Mk 23, a high speed only version of the Mk 24, was produced (9600 units) at Newport, Rhode Island during WWII, but was not used to any extent because of its short firing range requirements. Since the fuel consumption goes up on a cubic rate with speed, this torpedo had to be fired close to the target, thereby endangering the launching submarine.

Post War Homing Torpedoes
After wwn, the Navy maintained research facilities on torpedoes. Newport, Rhode Island continued testing thermal propulsion systems for torpedoes and the newly formed Ordnance Research Laboratory (ORL) at Pennsylvania State College continued research on acoustic homing torpedoes. ORL was initially staffed by many former Harvard Underwater Sound Lab (HUSL) scientists and engineers that moved to ORL after HUSL closed in 1945. ORL (now Applied Research Laboratory (ARL)) is one of four Navy sponsored university laboratories. The other laboratories are Johns Hopkins, Applied Research Lab (formerly Defense Research Lab) University of Texas, and Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington.

During the years following WWII, many innovations in torpedo development took place. The Navy was determined to maintain its technical edge. In 1946, underwater fired rockets were designed and tested at ORL Penn State with the assistance of a German scientist, Georg Knausenburger. This was the forerunner to the Polaris missile system. The scientists and engineers at ORL demonstrated successful optical wake homing torpedoes in 1947 and successful acoustic wake homing torpedoes in 1952. Work also continued on improving the passive homing systems and developing active homing systems using echo ranging techniques.

The Mk: 21 torpedo was a passive acoustic version of the aircraft launched Mk: 13 torpedo developed by HUSL and Bell Labs. Although it had a steam propulsion system, newer acoustic isolation techniques made it possible for this torpedo to operate with a passive acoustic system. This torpedo launched from aircraft was an anti-surface ship torpedo. The Mod 0 version did not make it into production. Later, ORL developed the torpedo Mk: 21 Mod 2 which was intended for use with a guided missile system. It was given a set of wings and a rocket motor and designated as the Petrel guided missile system with a range of 10 miles. Only a few hundred of these were produced.

The Mk 32 Mod 2 torpedo became the first fleet torpedo to use an active homing system. The active homing concept conceived in 1942 at HUSL was developed at ORL by the transplanted HUSL engineers. About 3300 of these torpedoes were produced to be used against submarines from either aircraft or surface ship platforms.

General Electric incorporated a combination active-passive homing system into the Mk 35 torpedo which was to be a universal torpedo capable of being launched from any platform. However, only 400 Mk 35 torpedoes were built. The Mk 35 torpedo, in service from 1949 to 1960, was replaced by the Mk 37 torpedo which was produced in quantities greater than 3000 units.

Mk 27 Mod 4 and the Mk 34-1
Near the end of the ’40s, the conflict between North Korea and South Korea was beginning to involve the U.S. The Navy was concerned that the Russians, with a large number of captured German Type XXI U-Boats at Vladivostok, may possibly enter the war on the side of the North Koreans. The Type XXI U-Boat was faster than its predecessors from WWII and could outrun a MK 27 running at 12 knots. A dependable submarine launched acoustic homing torpedo was needed. The Mk 27 torpedo was a submarine launched version of the Mk 24 (FIDO) torpedo developed at Harvard during World War II. Similar updates were needed for the aircraft launched Mk 24 torpedo. ORL was tasked by the Navy in 1948 to develop new versions of the sub launched Mk 27 and the aircraft launched Mk 24 torpedoes with significant improvements to the vacuum tube homing system, warhead, endurance, own ship safety, and torpedo electronics.

Paul Ebaugh, ORL, was the Project Engineer who had responsibility to develop the Mk 27 Mod 4 torpedo and the Mk 34-1 torpedo. There were many component changes to modify tolerances on power supplies and related homing system functions. New concepts were added to the homing system to increase the detection and tracking capability. New type gyros were used to insure torpedo dynamic stability. Larger warheads were used with improved exploders. Anti-circling safety systems were included to protect the launch ship from its own torpedo. Paul Ebaugh, Ed Ulrich, and their associates were able to complete the crash project within one year. The Navy produced 2000 Mk: 27 Mod 4 torpedoes and 4050 Mk 34-1 torpedoes at the Forest Park, Illinois facility. The first 400 Mk 27 Mod 4 torpedoes were tested at the Key West, Florida test site.

The transducers were located on the sides near the nose to make room for the exploder contact mechanism. There were four sensing elements in each transducer. later designs moved the transducers to the nose as in the first Mk 24 torpedoes. Actual homing range is dependent on acoustic propagation conditions and target characteristics, such as aspect, speed, and noise. Table 1 shows the comparison of the features of the Mk 27 Mod 0 torpedo and the Mk 27 Mod 4 torpedo. Significant improvements were increases in homing range, speed, warhead size, and component tolerances.

Table 1. Mk 27 Mod 0 and Mk 27 Mod 4 Torpedoes

Length    90 inches    126 inches
Weight    720 Ibs    1175 Ibs
Diameter    19 inches, 21 inchcl 19 inches guide rails    19 inches, 21 inchcl 19 inches guide rails
Propulaion    Electric    Electric
Homing    Passive    Improved Passive
Warhead    95 # HB.    128 # HB.
Speed    12 knots    16 knots
Range    S kyd (12 minutes)    6.2 tyd (12 minutes)
The Mk 34-1 torpedo was a new torpedo based on the successful Mk 24 torpedo. The improved characteristics are shown in Table 2. Technology improvements and component tolerance improvements to the Mk 27 Mod 4 were also incorporated into the Mk 34-1. Significant improvements were increases in the speed, homing range, and warhead size.

Design work was also done at ORL for the fire control systems of the Mk 27 Mod 4 torpedoes as well as the Mk 34-1 torpedoes. ORL also designed the aircraft launcher for the Mk 34-1 torpedoes.

The first wire guidance used with torpedoes was in the Mk 27 Mod 4 torpedo. This new torpedo designation was called the Mk 39 Mod 1 torpedo. It carried a trailing wire for mid-course guidance through the fire control system. The Mk 27 Mod 4 and Mk 30 Mod l torpedoes remained in the fleet from 1948 to 1960 being replaced by the Mk 37 torpedo. The Mk 34-1 torpedo remained in the fleet until 1958, being replaced by the Mk 43. The Mk 39 Mod l was removed from the fleet when wire guidance was added to the Mk 37 Mod l torpedoes in the late 1950s. The Mk 37 torpedo development will be discussed in a future SUBMARINE REVIEW.

Table 2. Mk 24 and the Mk 34-1 Torpedoes

Length    86 inches    125 inches
Weight    680 Ibs.    llSO Ibs.
Diameter    19 inches    19 inches (21 inch guide rails)
Propulation    Electric    Electric
Homing    Passive Circle Search    Passive Circle Search
Warhead    92 # HBS    116 # HBS
Speed    12 knots    Search-11 knots
Homins-17 knots
Range    4 kyd (12 minutes)    12 kyd @ 11 knoll (30 minutes)
3.6 kyd@ 17 knots (7 minutes)
The author wishes to thank all those who provided comments relative to the writing of this article. History is easy to recon-struct, tough to verify. There is still much documentation and varied opinions on the chronological development of torpedoes. Parochial interests sometimes illuminates or shadows actual events. 1his author has made a serious attempt to weigh the multitude of information as to authenticity and to present that data in a readable format.

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